Building Solutions and Materials

Category: Flooring (page 1 of 1)

Waterproofing Systems For Swimming Pools

As water places severe loads on the swimming pool structure, waterproofing protection for swimming pools is essential and is an aggressive factor both for its structure and for all materials used in its design. This report deals with the building materials for the swimming pool, and various waterproofing systems and items that could provide protection.

A water-retaining system used for activities such as recreation and exercise is a swimming pool. There are several different kinds, such as a private pool, a public pool, a competitive pool and an infinity pool. Concrete, fibreglass, vinyl-lined pools are used to create swimming pools. Of all these, the cement pool is most widely used. As a freestanding structure or as part of a building like a ship, pools may be sunk into the ground or installed above it. When water spills IN or OUT, ships sink, which means that the pool fails.

By a pre-decided number of procedures, concrete pools are built. This takes several days to a few weeks based on the size of the pool. Thus the, there were few points to note to guarantee the pool is watertight. Essential pool sites, such as building joints, pipe insertions, corners, various fittings such as rails, lamps, and pool surface, shall be adequately handled to render them waterproof.

Water Leaks And How To Waterproof Swimming Pools?

Water leakage is one of the big problems caused by deficiencies in design methods in swimming pools. The correct design, construction measures, waterproofing and tiling system will avoid many structural problems and save money and time as well.

At the time of construction, flaws in the concrete are inevitable. Joints due to delay in construction, due to restriction of the concrete pour, due to dis-similar material employed. These vital positions can be turned water-tight with swellable water-bars. Water-bars based on polymer technology placed on the dry surface of the concrete/any material, and then make the position water-tight if concrete poured. As water at these areas enters, water-bars swell by 3-4 percent in volume and block water flow. At the pipe penetrations, water bars are very useful as they are very easy to mount at the site level. A flexible polyurethane sealant is added to the pipe penetrations after construction at the coating time, seals the junction and serves the water-tightness function.

Construction joints are cut open in the shape of a ‘V’ groove after the pool construction and filled with polymer adapted mortar or SBR admixed mortar. This preparation not only offers the coating with a uniform surface but also ensures less permeable filing of mortar at the joints. Concrete is supposed to have honeycombs and air gaps at intersections, no matter how closely monitored for good workmanship. So, at the time of building, it is highly advised to use a vibrator and do pressure grouting following building.

Significant waterproofing considerations for swimming pools

The hydrostatic pressure of min 2.5 bars must be able to withstand the waterproof device. By adding the best primer / sealer coat before the waterproof sheet membrane, this can be done in the waterproofing membrane. Corners are handled with thermo-plastic-elastomer tapes during waterproofing, since we realise the tension and strains are mostly at the support / junction of the concrete structure the results in the creation of cracks.

The pool is a device that collects water and it requires to be washed at frequent intervals. Thus, the surface of the pool is provided with a system that offers a long-lasting, easy to clean, resistant effect of chemicals, no change in colour, and food grade. Tiles will satisfy these criteria. Using tile adhesive, pools can be built with tiles. The tile adhesive used for the construction of pool tiles must have a high polymer content and pass the strength of the bond in water immersion tests. A minimum of 2-3 mm joints must be preserved at the time of installation of the tiles and grouted with food grade epoxy or polymer-rich cement grout.

With so many choices available, it is wise to discuss a professional to verify that the most appropriate waterproofing solution that is also compliant with the other components in the design of the swimming pool is implemented. For your swimming ventures, engage a waterproofing contractor which has a variety of waterproofing, tiling and concrete repair items.

A prescriptive approach to the configuration of physical properties must be applied before detailed design procedures and requirements are established. Drying shrinkage, elastic modulus, relaxing characteristics, and tensile strength are the most extremely important properties for the provision of robust, crack-free patch repairs.

Epoxy Flooring Systems In ASEAN

INTRODUCTION

What is flooring with epoxy resin?

Epoxy Resin Flooring is a floor coating produced by blending resin and a hardener together. It provides a combination that creates a seamless, highly durable finish when spread to a floor. For a number of industrial, commercial and domestic uses, it is suitable.

According to Building and Construction Authority, there are 8 classifications of resin floors. These resins may be formulated to manufacture various forms of resin, usually epoxy, polyurethane and methacrylate.

Multi-layer flooring, also referred to as ‘sandwich’ systems, aggregate dressed systems based on several layers of floor coatings or flow-applied floorings. This is Medium/Heavy Duty with a thickness typical of less than 2 mm

Also referred to as ‘self-smoothing’ or ‘self-levelling’ flooring and providing a smooth surface. Flow-applied flooring This is medium/heavy duty with a standard 2 mm to 3 mm thickness.

Trowel-finished, heavily filled systems that typically add a surface coating to reduce porosity and provide a system support. Resin screed flooring This is Medium/Heavy Duty with a thickness typical of less than 4 mm

Flowable flooring for heavy duty, with a smooth surface. Strong/Very Heavy Duty with a standard thickness of 4 mm to 6 mm

Trowel-finished, concrete filled systems that are essentially impermeable across their thickness are heavy duty resin flooring. The incorporation of colored particles or flakes into the surface can create certain types of flooring with unique decorative effects. There are also slip resistant or anti-static/conductive forms of these resins.

How long do they last on epoxy floors?

The life span of an epoxy resin floor would be proportional to the total depth of the synthetic resin flooring, in very general terms. Resin flooring is exceptionally tough and durable and, when properly specified and mounted, can have a life expectancy in excess of 20 years. In such cases, due to their superior performance characteristics, the major share of the life cycle costs would be for daily cleaning and repair, which will apply to all forms of flooring, but will be lower for resin flooring. Moreover, by overcoating with a lower thickness than originally applied, they can usually be refurbished. For any case, the most suitable flooring will depend on the unique conditions it will be submitted to.

Is flooring epoxy expensive?

No, in contrast to its lifetime, epoxy flooring is not costly. Square area and thickness formulated epoxy flooring is a flexible and cost-effective flooring method for a range of industrial and commercial applications. The floor of choice for the pharmaceutical, food & drink, automobile, manufacturing, and warehouse management and electronics industries is commonly chosen for its hard-wearing quality and aesthetically appealing finished epoxy resin flooring systems. The initial installation cost when amortised over the lifetime makes it a very cost-effective choice, coupled with its superior performance characteristics and an expectancy in excess of 20 years when properly specified and built.

How thick is the floor made of epoxy resin?

Depending on the intended application, epoxy resin surfaces differ in thickness:

A standard thickness of up to 150 μm is the floor seal, which is applied in two or more coats and is typically solvent or water-borne. The intended use is as a concrete coat for light-duty dust-proofing and binding. If used for limited foot traffic and periodic rubber tyred vehicles and localized over-coating may be needed, Light Duty Floor Seal has an expected life of 1 to 2 years. The floor seal is likely to last up to 1 year if used for daily foot traffic, periodic fork lift truck traffic and occasionally hard plastic-wheeled trolleys. Floor seal applied using a brush or roller does not fill any differences in the surface of the floor and may be prone to impact damage. Chemical resistance is minimal, with protection only against intermittent spillage of mild chemicals. Floor seal is present in a particular colour or transparent format that is uniform.

The average thickness of the floor coating, applied in two or more coats and typically solvent-free, is 150-300 μm. Its intended usage is for light to medium duty traffic, so if used for light foot traffic and occasional rubber tyre vehicles, the estimated life span of a floor coating is 2 to 3 years and only 1 to 2 years if used for normal foot traffic, regular fork lift truck traffic and occasional heavy plastic-wheeled trolleys and localised over-coating may be necessary. Using a brush, roller or squeegee, floor coatings are applied and do not noticeably fill in any differences on the floor surface and are prone to impact damage. The chemical resistance of floor coatings is minimal, with defense against occasional spillage of mild chemicals only. Accessible in a single colour or transparent uniform.

The thickness of the high construction floor coating, which is applied in two or more coats and is normally solvent-free, is 300 to 1000 μm. This is a medium duty resin for light foot traffic, occasional rubber tyre vehicles, 2 to 4 years for daily foot traffic, frequent fork lift truck traffic and occasional hard plastic-wheeled trolleys with an estimated life of 5 to 7 years and is not recommended for heavy duty use. A roller, squeegee, or spray is used to apply a high-build floor coating. High-build epoxy resin has good chemical resistance in the absence of mechanical damage, good resistance to occasional spillage of certain chemicals and is available in a single uniform colour or transparent format.

Often referred to as ‘self-smoothing’ or ‘self-leveling’ flooring and providing a smoother surface (although a surface dressing may be given). Flow Applied Flooring The intended usage is for medium to heavy duty with a standard thickness of 2 to 3 mm and an estimated lifespan of 6 to 8 years for light foot traffic, frequent rubber tyre vehicles and 3 to 4 years (for the 2.5 mm system) for constant forklift truck traffic, with some effect on hard plastic wheeled trolleys. The method of application is via a trowel, pin rake, slotted squeegee and a spiked roller finish. Flow Applied Flooring has very excellent strength and is available in single or decorative effects of uniform colour. Adequacy for food production areas.

Trowel-finished, heavily filled screed flooring, which typically contains a surface coating to reduce porosity as well as provide a wearing surface and has a standard thickness of 4 mm upwards. For daily foot traffic, periodic fork lift traffic congestion, sporadic hard plastic-wheeled trolleys and 5 to 7 years (provided seal coats are maintained regularly) if used for constant fork lift truck traffic, hard plastic wheeled trolleys with some effect, the intended use of screed flooring is medium to heavy duty with an expected life of 10 to 12 years. A trowel or sledge distributed and trowel-finished treatment of a screed flooring is

Heavy Duty Flowable Flooring is a concrete filled system with a surface that is self-smoothing (A surface dressing may be given). The planned use of Heavy Duty Flowable Flooring with a normal thickness of 4 to 6 mm is heavy to very heavy duty with an estimated life of 8 to 10 years with continuous fork lift truck traffic, hard plastic wheeled trolleys, some impact and 5 to 8 years with heavily loaded traffic and impact. Heavy Duty Flowable Flooring has outstanding impact resistance and very good resistance to chemical attack when applied with a trowel or pin rake and finished with a spiked roller. Accessible in a single colour uniform or with a contemporary finish.

What advantages does epoxy flooring have?

The floor of choice for the pharmaceutical, food & drink, automobile, manufacturing, and storage of goods and electronics industries is commonly chosen for its hard-wearing quality and aesthetically appealing finished epoxy resin flooring structures. The base concrete is covered by epoxy flooring from humidity, stains, grease and fractures. It is durable, comes in a range of colours and can be applied with anti-slip adhesives and separation lines. The initial initial investment when amortised over the lifetime makes it a very cost-effective choice, coupled with its competitive performance characteristics and a lifespan in excess of 20 years when properly specified and built. With more than 30 years of experience in resin floor applications, polyurethane flooring and epoxy floor coatings. We provide a full package of commercial flooring contractors that includes site survey, design, surface treatment & installation of items.

How do you treat concrete for flooring with epoxy?

New concrete slabs should be allowed to heal completely for 30-60 days until an epoxy coating is applied to the surface, and concrete slab floors should be properly prepared and a primer applied. Normally, the square area determines the type of surface preparation required. Here at PSC Flooring, as seasoned industrial flooring contractors, with years of experience under our belts, we can help you decide the ideal method for preparing your surface for new flooring. You can be assured that we will provide you with the best preparation possible, whether it’s surface preparation for painting, labeling, or a whole new floor setup. As leading contractors of surface preparation, we typically give two separate methods:

Shot Blasting-In wider regions, our shot blasting service is typically used. Shot Blasting requires a regulated stream of abrasive shot material quickly hitting the substrate surface. Apart from sand blasting, which is usually for metallic surfaces, a turbine is used to accelerate the abrasive by shot blasting. To allow it to affect harder materials like concrete, the turbine will rotate at a very quick pace. It is then mainly collected up again by the system and reapplied when the abrasive shot reaches the substrate.

Diamond Grinding: Using a specialist machine, the diamond grinding procedure requires scraping a thin coating from the concrete floor surface. Our diamond grinding machine has diamond tips with rotating grinding blades specially designed to grind the surface down. Manually moved along and level customizable, a diamond grinder can extract as much or as very little about the surface of the substrate as necessary. A portable diamond grinder can also be used for small or complex areas.

APPLICATIONS

Is flooring epoxy safe?

Yeah, epoxy flooring is safe for residential, commercial and industrial applications. If the possibility of water occurs, the appropriate epoxy resin system is needed. The floor of choice for the pharmaceutical, food & drink, automobile, manufacturing, and warehousing and electronics industries is commonly chosen for its hard-wearing quality and aesthetically appealing finished epoxy resin flooring systems. The initial installation cost when amortized over the lifetime makes it a very cost-effective choice, coupled with its superior performance characteristics and a life expectancy in excess of 20 years when properly specified and built. With more than 30 years of experience in resin floor applications, polyurethane flooring and epoxy floor coatings. We provide a full package of industrial flooring contractors that includes site survey, design, surface preparation & installation of items.

Is flooring epoxy waterproof?

Yeah, waterproof epoxy floors with epoxy flooring. The composition of the epoxy resin forms a barrier that is resistant to the entry of water and thus, while water on the surface may not be a problem damp coming from the ground below the epoxy resin floor, it is important to mitigate it and therefore it is recommended to add a DPM (Damp Proof Membrane) layer before the Epoxy resin flooring system.

Is it possible to paint over the epoxy floor?

Yes, the epoxy floor system may be overlaid or over coated as long as the surface is primed/keyed. It is recommended that routine maintenance is undertaken to ensure the durability of a surface and if any inconsistency of damage has occurred, the surface is prepared and repairs carried out by a painting service. For instance, it is recommended that floor screeds have seal coats maintained properly to ensure the flooring system’s longevity.

Is flooring with epoxy good for homes?

Yes, domestic epoxy flooring solutions are routinely mounted, but this commodity was initially intended for industrial/commercial use. It can be a difficult decision to choose the correct flooring for your house, because there are advantages and disadvantages that come with every material option for your flooring solution. If you’re thinking of installing epoxy flooring for both domestic purposes, consider whether it’s a good fit or not, the pros and cons for you.

Epoxy-based flooring, because of its smooth, sleek and professional finish, has become a common option in contemporary spaces. In areas where flooring is subject to extreme traffic and loads, epoxy flooring has a longer lifetime than most other flooring solutions, which is highly preferred. This is possibly overdetermined in a home environment.

Users have very good aesthetic standards when it comes to their built environment (and rightly so). Initially envisioned for industrial/commercial applications where the floor area is much greater than a domestic situation, factors beyond the control of the contractor can contribute to a 100 percent perfect surface not being achieved by the floor. In such a way, a homeowner will need to consider the industrial look and polish if a surface is more than suitable in an industrial site.

Does a garage floor with epoxy boost home value?

Although not confirmed, enhancing any part of your home can only help to give it beauty and therefore desirability. If you intend to sell your property, it could translate into higher resale value. The flooring system of choice for commercial garages and workshops is a medium duty resin with an estimated life of 5 to 7 years for light foot traffic, occasional rubber tyre vehicles, 2 to 4 years for daily foot traffic, frequent fork lift truck traffic and periodic hard plastic trolleys in an industrial/commercial environment and is not recommended for heavy duty use. Hence, for domestic use, a longer lifespan will be required. Epoxy resin comes in a wide variety of colours and is corrosion stable to oil, grease and diesel, making it an option for workshops in commercial vehicles. Quite tough to wear, epoxy resin offers a shiny, appealing, easy to clean floor with excellent tensile strength. It is a relatively fast process in terms of installation. Using a roller, squeegee or spray, the application of a high-build floor coating takes about 3 days from start to finish, including drying time for a two-coat method.

Introduction to Concrete Patch Repair Systems

One of the greatest problems in today ‘s building is concrete degradation.
Industry and the amount of concrete structures requiring repair is rising globally. The patch repair method is one of the most effective tactics for the restitution of concrete structures subjected to corrosion protection. Patch repairs have to be sufficiently impermeable and free of cracks, designed to protect the existing framework from further ingress of aggressive agents and humidity from the environment. In directing the design and implementation of such systems, technical specifications for patch corrections are usually somewhat vague. In the process of selecting acceptable materials and implementation methods, the design engineer or false ceiling contractor also has to rely on personal judgment. Practical tools for patch design need to be created. Repairs to take account of the system’s structural properties, related environmental impacts and material parameters.

A prescriptive approach to the configuration of physical properties must be applied before detailed design procedures and requirements are established. Drying shrinkage, elastic modulus, relaxing characteristics, and tensile strength are the most extremely important properties for the provision of robust, crack-free patch repairs.

INTRODUCTION

Concrete is one of the most oldest building materials for the construction industry and for construction development for many decades. However, the perception of concrete corrosion processes has advanced at a much slower pace, resulting in the need to repair an increasing number of structures. The technique of patch repair is particularly suitable for the needs emerging from the above and has been commonly used for the repair, lining and reinforcement of concrete structures. As a consequence, one of the most common methods of repair used in the building industry is concrete patch repair systems.

Patch repairs have often encountered significant performance issues in prior laboratory studies as well as in operation, which are primarily expressed in overlay cracking and/or debonding. These failures are primarily due to differential differences in volume between the substrate and the overlay, mainly caused by the consequences of shrinkage of the overlay. A broken overlay makes it possible for toxic substances to penetrate the concrete and trigger further degradation of the repair system and hence failure. Usually, the choice of patch repair materials is based on the availability, specifications for workability, and economic criteria. Compressive strength is always the only considered parameter in terms of design specifications. It increases as the material parameters most critical for crack resistance, such as shrinkage strain, relaxation properties, elastic modulus, and tensile strength, questions about the reliability of such repair systems are generally ignored. While the definition of durability parameters is progressively drawing attention in the design of new concrete structures, another aspect of equal significance, that of concrete repair durability, appears to have been largely overlooked. In multiple repair failures, the effects of this are obvious, visible in cracking, debonding, delamination, and spalling. Little or no data is always included in the repair material requirements provided by the company.

Properties of materials such as water absorption, thermal coefficients, or creep are available. The misrepresentation of time-dependent quantity shifts and the primary emphasis on material strength are possibly one of the key weaknesses of the repair materials industry. Practitioners and researchers alike have acknowledged the need for more realistic design guidelines for bonded concrete overlays and patch repair systems. That is the
It is important to recognise that bonded overlay output is not only a function of its material components, but also of how the components and the system as a whole relate to environmental influences. Therefore, it seems important to establish testing techniques for the forecasting of overlay durability for which overlays can be built to take account of the system’s structural behaviour, related environmental pressures and material characteristics. Reliable research methods are not currently prevalent. Therefore, a deeper basic understanding of the structural behaviour of bonded concrete overlays must be created. This paper suggests a prescriptive approach to the definition of material properties in order to mitigate premature repair deficiencies in the short to mid term. This strategy can be implemented before comprehensive procedures for analytic design are accessible.